Our ancestors did not know about Forensic Science, but they use methods and scientific methods for the investigation of crime. Their detailed reference is available in Kautilya’s “Arthashastra”. It was written about 2300 years ago.
Around thousands of years ago, Indians studied the various patterns of papillary lines. It is assumed that they know about the persistency and individuality of fingerprints which they used as signatures. Indian knew from long that the handprint, known as Tarija were inimitable.
A century ago the use of fingerprints as signatures by illiterate people used in India. It was considered ceremonial by some people till it was scientifically proved that identification from fingerprints was infallible.
Scientist Contribution in Building the Foundation of Forensic Science
Mathieu Orfila –
Mathieu Orfila is known as the Father of Modern Toxicology. In the early 19th century, Mathieu Orfila has established the Paris method for the chemical analysis of poisons.
Alphonse Bertillon –
In 1879, Alphonse Bertillon has developed the science of Anthropology. This was a systematic procedure of taking body measurements to distinguish between individuals and with the invention of photography, he was the first to use it in a criminal investigation.
Alphonse Bertillon is known as the Father of Criminal Investigation because, in 1881, he takes pictures of all French criminals and file them in the Bureau of Identification in Paris which is distinctive from others.
Francis Galton –
He has known as the Father of Fingerprint. Francis Galton has conducted the first definitive study of fingerprints and their classification. In 1892, he published a book on the fingerprint.
Hans Gross –
Hans Gross was a lawyer by profession and spent many years studying the principles of a criminal investigation. He also published a book on a criminal investigation in 1893 known as “Handbuch fur Untersuchnugsrichter” later also published in English.
Edmond Locard –
Edmond Locard profound the “Principle of Exchange”, which forms the basis of forensic examination of physical evidence.
Leone Lattes –
Leone has derived a simple procedure for determining the blood type i.e A, B, O, AB of dried bloodstains found at the crime scene.
Calvin Goddard –
Calvin has used a comparison microscope to determine if a bullet was fired from a specific gun. He also published a study of “Tool Marks” on bullets.
Albert Osborn –
Albert Osborn has developed the fundamental principles of document examination. Further, in 1910, he wrote the book known as “Questioned Documents” which is primarily used for reference of document experts.